Because the future of Jewish Peoplehood depends upon the three core questions I address which will determine our collective future: 1) Can Jewish women play an equal role in Jewish life and even in the public square in Israel? 2) is non-orthodox Judaism legitimate in Israel? 3) Do Diaspora Jews matter? Do Israeli Jews matter to Diaspora Jews? Each of these three questions and their necessary answers is posed in stark ways by the controversy around Women of the Wall which serves as a case-study on Israel-Diaspora relations and the future of Jewish Peoplehood.